**Pesticides**

To begin with, applying the correct amount of pesticide is a must for responsible, effective pest management. The pesticide label and other recommendations tell you how much to apply. It is your job to:

- Firstly, diluting the formulation correctly
- Secondly, accurately calculate the size of the application site
- Then, apply the proper amount of pesticide to the treatment area

**Dilutions of Pesticides Correctly**

Unless you have the correct amount of pesticide in your tank mix, you cannot apply the correct amount of pesticide to the target. Under recommended or label rate pesticide may not kill the target pest(s) and too much can injure plants by causing phytotoxic reactions.

As a matter of fact, formulations such as wettable and soluble powders, emulsifiable concentrates and flowables usually are sold as concentrates and must be diluted in the spray tank. Water is the most common diluent, but oil, liquid fertilizers and other liquids are sometimes used. Consult the labeling or other recommendations to find out what diluent to use, how much the formulation should be diluted and in what order the materials should be added.

Performing a simple calculation based on the capacity of your sprayer, how your equipment is calibrated, how much area you want to treat and the recommended application rate.

**Dilutions of Dry Formulations**

**Pounds Per 100 Gallons**

Directions for dry formulations, such as wettable or soluble powders, may be given in pounds of pesticide formulation per 100 gallons of diluent. You must know how many gallons your sprayer tank holds (or the number of gallons you will be adding to the tank if the job requires only a partial tank load). Then use the following formula:

__Gallons in-tank x lbs per 100 gals recommended__ **
**100 gallons ( Pounds of product needed in a tank)

__For example:
__Your spray tank holds 500 gallons. The labeling calls for 2 pounds of formulation per 100 gallons of water. How many pounds of the formulation should you add to the tank to make a full tank load?

*Hint:*100 gallons is one-fifth the volume of your tank so you will need 5 times more than 2 pounds of the formulation.

__Gallons in tank (500) x lbs per 100 gallons (2)
__100 gallons ( Pounds of product needed in a tank (10)

**Dilutions of Liquid Formulations**

**Pints/Quarts/Gallons per 100 Gallons**

Application rates for liquid formulations (EC, F, S, etc.) are often listed as pints, quarts or gallons per 100 gallons of diluent (carrier) or per acre. To make these calculations, use the same formulas you use for calculating dilutions for dry formulations, but substitute the appropriate liquid measure for “pounds” in the formulas. Use the following formula:

__Gallons in-tank x amount per 100 gals recommended__

100 gallons ( Amount formulation needed in the tank)

__For example: __The labeling rate is 2 pints of pesticide formulation per 100 gallons of water. Your spray tank holds 30 gallons. How many pints of the formulation is needed in the tank?

*Hint*: Since your tank holds about one-third of the 100 gallons, you will need about one-third of the 2-pints per 100-gallon rate.

__Gallons in tank (30) x pints per 100 gallons (2)__

100 gallons ( Pints formulation needed in a tank (0.6)

0.6 pints x 16 ounces per pint = 9.6 ounces of formulation needed in the tank

**Pints/Quarts of Formulation per 1,000 Square Feet**

If the application rate is listed as pints or quarts of formulation per 1,000 square feet, use the following formula:

__Gallons in-tank x rate per 1,000 square feet
__Amount of equipment applies per 1,000 square feet = Amount formulation needed in the tank

__For example__: Your sprayer tank holds 10 gallons and applies 1_ quarts of spray per 1,000 square feet. The labeling directions indicate a rate of 5 tablespoons per 1,000 square feet. How much of formulation do you need to make a tankful of spray? *Hint*: Your sprayer holds 10 gallons, which is 40 quarts, and 64 tablespoons = 1 quart.

__Gallons in tank (10 gal = 40 qts) x rate per 1,000 square feet (5 Tbsp)__ = Amount needed Amount equipment applies per 1,000 square feet (1.5 quarts) in tank (133 Tbsp)

133 Tbsp ( 64 Tbsp per quart = 2 quarts plus 5 Tbsp (2.08 quarts) needed in the tank

**Using water-only spray for calibration**

Some pesticides are registered for use at a certain amount per unit area, e.g. fl.oz. per hectare. Firstly, to apply this amount to a given planting of a greenhouse or nursery crop, calculate the size of the area to be treated. Secondly, determine how much spray volume is required to obtain satisfactory coverage by using a water-only spray applied to all or part of the planting. The volume required will vary with the size of the plants, the amount of plant canopy and plant structure. Once the required volume has been determined for coverage of the treatment area, the appropriate amount of pesticide can be added to the tank to make the actual application.

**Dilutions Rate Calculations**

**Dilutions Tables:**

**Wettable Powders: **Number of ounces of wettable powder to use in small sprayers when the amount per 100 gallons is known.

**Emulsifiable Concentrates: **Number of fluid ounces of emulsifiable concentrate (EC) to use in small sprayers when the amount per 100 gallons is known.

**Mist Blower: **Quantity of emulsifiable concentrate (EC) needed to make a 25X concentrate.

**Calculating Size of Target Sites for Fogs and Fumigants**

To determine how much pesticide you need for a job, you must measure or calculate the size of the site to be treated. The following examples will help you to calculate the area and the volume of some enclosed spaces.

**Rectangles**

The area of a rectangle is found by multiplying the length (L) by the width (W).

__For example:__

Area = Length x Width

L = 125 feet

W = 40 feet

Area = 125 ft. x 40 ft.

Area = 5,000 sq. ft.

**Circles**

The area of a circle is the radius (half the diameter) times the radius-time 3.14.

__For example:__

Area = radius x radius x 3.14__
__r = 35 feet

Area = 35 ft. x 35 ft. x 3.14

Area = 3,846.5 sq. ft.

**Cubes or Boxes**

The volume of a cube or box is found by multiplying the length (L) by the width (W) by the height (H).

__For example:__

Volume = Length x Width x Height __
__L = 125 feet

W = 40 feet

H = 12 feet

Volume = 125 feet x 40 feet x 12 feet

Volume = 60,000 cubic feet (feet3)

**Cylinders**

The volume of a cylindrical structure is found by multiplying the height by the are of the circle at the base. The area of the circle is the radius (half the diameter) times the radius times 3.14.

For example:

Volume = Height x radius x radius x 3.14__
__Height = 125 feet

Radius = 35 feet

Volume = 125 feet x 35 feet x 35 feet x 3.14

Volume = 480,812 cubic feet (feet3)

**Tent-shaped Spaces**

The volume of a tent-shaped structure is found by multiplying the length (L) by the width (W) by the height (H) and dividing by 2.

__For example:__

Volume = __LxWxH
__L = 125 feet 2

W = 40 feet

H = 12 feet

Volume =

__125 feet x 40 feet x 12 feet__

2

Volume = 30,000 cubic feet (feet3)

**Quonset-style Structures**

The volume of Quonset-style structures is found by figuring the area of the end and multiplying that by the length.

To figure the area of the half-circle-shaped end, treat it as a whole circle, using the height from the ground to the highest point as the radius (H1). After you have figured the area of the whole circle (H1 x H1 x 3.14), divide by 2 to get the area of the half-circle.

__For example:__

__H1 x H1 x 3.14__ x L = Volume of half-circle__
__H1 = 12 feet 2

L = 125 feet

__12 ft. x 12 ft. x 3.14__ x 125 ft. = 28,260 cubic feet

2

**Greenhouse Volume Calculations:**

EVEN SPAN STRUCTURE

sketch here

Area A and B = .5 (5 x 10) = 25

Area C = 20 x 5 = 100

Total Area = A + B + C = 100 + 25 + 25 = 100

Volume = Length x Total Area = 100 x 150 = 15,000 cu. ft.

ROUNDUP STRUCTURE

sketch here

Area A + B = .5 (r2) = 127

Area C = 5 x 18 = 90 sq. ft.

Total Area = A + B + C = 127 + 90 = 217

Volume = Length x Total Area = 50 x 217 = 10,850 cu. ft.